The approach most commonly in use is to evaluate effectiveness through direct observation of teachers in the act of teaching. In this article, we report a few results from an ongoing study of teacher classroom observation in the Cincinnati Public Schools. The motivating research question was whether classroom observations—when performed by trained professionals external to the school, using an extensive set of standards—could identify teaching practices likely to raise achievement.
We find that evaluations based on well-executed classroom observations do identify effective teachers and teaching practices.
Creating a Teacher Development Program Linked to Curriculum Renewal
These findings support the idea that teacher evaluation systems need not be based on test scores alone in order to provide useful information about which teachers are most effective in raising student achievement. At a minimum, it is a system to which the district has devoted considerable resources. During the yearlong TES process, teachers are typically observed and scored four times: three times by a peer evaluator external to the school and once by a local school administrator. The peer evaluators are experienced classroom teachers chosen partly based on their own TES performance.
They serve as full-time evaluators for three years before they return to the classroom. Both peer evaluators and administrators must complete an intensive training course and accurately score videotaped teaching examples. The system requires that all new teachers participate in TES during their first year in the district, again to receive tenure usually in their fourth year , and every fifth year thereafter.
Teachers tenured before —01 were gradually phased into the five-year rotation. Additionally, teachers may volunteer to be evaluated; most volunteers do so to post the high scores necessary to apply for selective positions in the district for example, lead teacher or TES evaluator.
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The TES scoring rubric used by the evaluators, which is based on the work of educator Charlotte Danielson, describes the practices, skills, and characteristics that effective teachers should possess and employ. Table 1 provides an example of two elements that comprise one standard. For each element, the rubric provides language describing what performance looks like at each scoring level: Distinguished a score of 4 , Proficient 3 , Basic 2 , or Unsatisfactory 1.
Cincinnati provided us with records of each classroom observation conducted between the —01 and —09 school years, including the scores that evaluators assigned for each specific practice element as a result of that observation. This index captures the general importance of the full set of teaching practices measured by the evaluation. A teacher who is more skilled at managing the classroom environment, as compared to her ability to engage in desired instructional activities, will receive a higher score on this index than a teacher who engages in these instructional practices but who is less skilled at managing the classroom.
Note, however, that we did not construct the indices based on any hypotheses of our own about which aspects of teaching practice measured by TES were most likely to influence student achievement. Rather, we used a statistical technique known as principal components analysis, which identifies the smaller number of underlying constructs that the eight different dimensions of practice are trying to capture.
As it turns out, scores on these three indices explain 87 percent of the total variation in teacher performance across all eight standards. For all teachers in our sample, the average score on the Overall Classroom Practices index was 3. Yet one-quarter of teachers received an overall score higher than 3.
In other words, despite the fact that TES evaluators tended to assign relatively high scores on average, there is a fair amount of variation from teacher to teacher that we can use to examine the relationship between TES ratings and classroom effectiveness. If some teachers are assigned particularly engaged or cohesive classrooms year after year, the results could still be biased; this approach, however, does eliminate bias due to year-to-year differences in unmeasured classroom traits being related to classroom observation scores.
We restrict our comparisons to teachers and students within the same schools in order to eliminate any potential influence of differences between schools on both TES ratings and student achievement. In other words, we ask whether teachers who receive higher TES ratings than other teachers in their school produce larger gains in student achievement than their same-school colleagues.
The specific point system that TES uses to rate teachers as Proficient and Distinguished is somewhat arbitrary. For a better sense of the magnitude of these estimates, consider a student who begins the year at the 50th percentile and is assigned to a top-quartile teacher as measured by the Overall Classroom Practices score; by the end of the school year, that student, on average, will score about three percentile points higher in reading and about two points higher in math than a peer who began the year at the same achievement level but was assigned to a bottom-quartile teacher.
On-going teacher training and support is critical to the successful utilization of ICTs in education Teacher training and professional development is seen as the key driver for the successful usage of ICTs in education. Teacher professional development is a process, not an event Traditional one-time teacher training workshops have not been seen as effective in helping teachers to feel comfortable using ICTs, let alone in integrating it successfully into their teaching. Discrete, 'one-off' training events are seen as less effective than on-going professional development activities.
However, ICTs can be important tools to help meet such increased needs, by helping to provide access to more and better educational content, aid in routine administrative tasks, provide models and simulations of effective teaching practices, and enable learner support networks, both in face to face and distance learning environments, and in real time or asynchronously. Successful teacher professional development models can be divided into three phases Successful on-going professional development models can be divided into three phases: pre-service, focusing on initial preparation on pedagogy, subject mastery, management skills and use of various teaching tools including ICTs ; in-service, including structured face-to-face and distance learning opportunities building upon pre-service training and directly relevant to teacher needs; and on-going formal and informal pedagogical and technical support, enabled by ICTs, for teachers, targeting daily needs and challenges.
Effective teacher professional development should model effective teaching practices Effective teacher professional development should approximate the classroom environment as much as possible. In addition, professional development activities should model effective practices and behaviors and encourage and support collaboration between teachers. Training in assessment methods is important Professional development should include methods for evaluating and modifying pedagogical practices and expose teachers to a variety of assessment methods.
Effective professional development requires substantial planning A needs assessment should precede the creation of and participation in teacher professional development activities, regular monitoring and evaluation should occur of these activities, and feedback loops should be established, if professional development is to be effective and targeted to the needs of teachers.
Theory and Practice in Professional Learning
On-going, regular support for teachers is crucial On-going and regular support is essential to support teacher professional development and can be facilitated through the use of ICTs in the form of websites, discussion groups, e-mail communities, radio or television broadcasts. A variety of changes must be implemented to optimize teacher use of ICTs Shifting pedagogies, redesigning the curriculum and assessment, and providing more autonomy to the schools help to optimize the use of ICT.
Functioning technical infrastructure is obviously crucial Teachers must have adequate access to functioning computers, and be provided with sufficient technical support if they are to use ICTs effectively. Introducing ICTs takes time Adequate time must be allowed for teachers to develop new skills, explore their integration into their existing teaching practices and curriculum, and undertake necessary additional lesson planning if ICTs are to be used effectively. Support from school administration and the community can be important Support of school administrators and, in some cases, the surrounding community, for teacher use of ICTs is seen as critical if ICTs are to be used at all, let alone effectively.
For this reason, targeted outreach to both groups is often necessary if investments in ICTs to support education are to be optimized. Communities of practice can be important tools to support teacher professional development The existence of formal and informal communities of practice and peer networks can be important tools to support ICT in education initiatives and activities. Such support mechanisms can be facilitated through the use of ICTs.
Lessons learned from introducing ICTs in education need to be shared As the introduction of ICTs to aid education is often part of a larger change or reform process, it is vital that successful uses of ICTs are promoted and disseminated.
There appears to be a general consensus from OECD experience as to the most effective pedagogical practices for teachers when using ICTs. In addition, the barriers impeding the successful development and delivery of effective pedagogical practices are also generally agreed upon. Research from OECD countries suggests that both are useful, but that ICTs are most effective when they help to enable learner-centric pedagogies. However, studies of ICT use in LDCs suggest that, despite rhetoric that ICTs can enable new types of teaching and learning styles, for the most part they are being used to support traditional learning practices.
Can the same types of pedagogical practices and transformations thought to be enabled by the introduction of ICTs be introduced and maintained in environments where ICTs are not used? How can we measure outcomes of ICT use by teachers resulting from participation in professional development activities?
Which types of ICTs can provide the most effective and relevant support for professional development, including enabling peer networks, and how? How are ICTs currently being used at the pre-service level if at all to train teachers in LDCs, and what can we learn from such use? The application of innovative teaching and learning methods is critical if we IV. Preferred Thinking Teaching strategies. In which areas was there a difference? What might this tell you? An effective teacher is an excellent communicator and therefore thinks about improving his or her presentation skills.
If I spend time in class on active learning exercises, I will never What is a questionnaire? A questionnaire is a set of questions for gathering. Your responses are voluntary and confidential. Gaubatz When students evaluate course instruction highly we would hope it is because the instruction has produced effective learning. This survey also consists of questions on teacher evaluation by students. A unified conceptualization of teaching effectiveness is proposed to use multiple sources of evidence, such as student ratings, peer ratings, and self-evaluation, to provide an accurate and reli Effective teaching methods engage gifted students, as well as slow-learning children and those with attention deficit tendencies.
Discuss reasons for using various participatory-teaching techniques as well as advantages and disadvantages associated with their use. Methods and strategies for evaluation of teaching and units At Macquarie, we encourage you to evaluate using a range of sources of information. It continues with a discussion of specific LD-appropriate strate-gies for reading, spelling, reading comprehension, and math. O'Connor, Teaching Methods. Orientation To introduce and motivate the class you might:" have a translator briefly explain the theory behind the method" show a documentary film of students learning through TPR, or R.
Now that we have identified the different sources from which evaluative feedback can be obtained, let us turn our attention to the main evaluation techniques that can be used to elicit such feedback. In what areas are you most effective as a teacher? There are may useful teaching strategies to support effective teaching in social sciences.
These four questions are also helpful when providing feedback to parents: There are a number of factors that can affect how effective you are as a teacher and how successful your students are in mastering subjects.
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According to academic research, linguists have demonstrated that there is not one single best method for everyone in all contexts, and that no one teaching method is inherently superior to the others. We have a selection of questionnaire examples in PDF which you may all download in this post. Preview template Teaching methods for autistic children include the following: Inclusion: Inclusion aka mainstreaming or integration is an approach for teaching autistic children in mainstream classes with children without disabilities.
They may alert you to sections that confused them or felt out of place. Davis, University of Michigan, E. Most of the methods described below can be used for all of these functions. Teaching Styles Quiz 5.
Stratified Sampling Defining and Studying Effective Professional Development We define effective professional development as structured professional learning that results in changes in teacher practices and improvements in student learning outcomes. Checklist for Effective Lecturing. Ask your testers for feedback.
Evaluation of teaching can have many purposes, including collecting feedback for teaching improvement, developing a portfolio for job applications, or gathering data as part of personnel decisions, such as reappointment or promotion and tenure. Conduct midterm teaching evaluations or simply ask the students for suggestions and comments at the midpoint of the quarter.
Some children have responded better to inclusive teaching than special education classes.