Polyvinyl Fluoride Sina Ebnesajjad E-bok. Fluoropolymers in the 21st Century Sina Ebnesajjad Inbunden. Ladda ned. Spara som favorit. This is the second of a two volume series of books about fluoroplastics. Volume 1 covers the non-melt processible homopolymers, requiring non-traditional processing techniques.
Volume 2 is devoted to the melt-processible fluoropolymers, their polymerization and fabrication techniques including injection molding, wire, tube, and film extrusion, rotational molding, blow molding, compression molding, and transfer molding. Both a source of data and a reference, the properties, characteristics, applications, safety, disposal, and recycling of melt-processible fluoropolymers are comprehensively detailed for immediate use by today's practicing engineering and scientists in the plastics industry.
Representative olefins are ethylene, propylene, 1- butene, 1-hexene, 4-methyl-l-pentene, and 1-octene.
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Representative monomers which are copolymerizable with said olefins are vinyl esters, such as vinyl acetate, vinyl propionate, vinyl butyrate, vinyl chloroacetate, and vinyl chloropropionate; vinyl alcohol; acrylic and alpha-alky] acrylic acids, and their alkyl esters, amides, and nitriles, such as acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, ethacrylic acid, methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, N,N-dimethyl acrylamide, methacrylamide, and acrylonitrile; vinyl aromatics, such as styrene, o-methoxystyrene, p-methoxystyrene, and vinyl naphthalene; vinyl and vinylidene halides, such as vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride, and vinylidene bromide; alkyl esters of maleic and fumaric acids and anhydrides, such as dimethyl maleate, diethyl maleate, and maleic anhydride; vinyl alkyl ethers, such as vinyl methyl ether, vinyl ethyl ether, vinyl isobutyl ether, and 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether; vinyl pyridine; N-vinyl carbazole; N-vinyl pyrolidone; and dienes, such as 1,3- butadiene.
The hydrocarbon olefin polymers also include the metallic salts of said olefin copolymers, which contain free carboxylic acid groups. Illustrative of the metals which can be used to provide the salts of said carboxylic acid polymers are the mono-, di-, and tri-valent metals, such as sodium, lithium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, aluminum, barium, zinc, zirconium, beryllium, iron, nickel, and cobalt.
Representative examples of hydrocarbon olefin polymers useful in this invention are polyethylene, polypropylene, and copolymers of ethylene with propylene, 1-butene, 1-hexene, 4-methyl-l-pentene, or 1-octene. Representative blends of thermoplastic olefin hydrocarbon polymers useful in this invention are blends of polyethylene and polypropylene, low-density polyethylene and high-density polyethylene, and polyethylene and olefin copolymers containing said copolymerizable monomers, some of which are described above, e.
The preferred thermoplastic olefin hydrocarbon polymers are thermoplastic homopolymers of ethylene and propylene and copolymers of ethylene with 1-butene, 1-hexene, 1-octene, 4-methyl-l-pentene, or propylene. Two or more of the above-described hydrocarbon olefin polymers can be used as blend component c. Or one or more of such polymers can be blended and used together with poly oxyalkylene polymers, such as polyethylene glycol, as blend component c , each being, for example, 5 to 95 wt.
The hydrocarbon polymers useful in this invention as a blend component can also be poly oxyalkylene polyols and their derivatives, which can be used alone or with said hyrocarbon polymers. A class ofsuch poly oxyalkylene polymers can be represented by the general formula A[ OR 1 x OR 2 ] y , preferably A[ OCH 2 CH 2 x OH] v , where A is an active hydrogen-free residue of a low molecular weight, initiator organic compound having a plurality of active hydrogen atoms e.
Said poly oxyalkylene chain can be a homopolymer chain, e. R 2 is H or an organic radical, such as alkyl, aryl, or a combination thereof such as aralkyl or alkaryl, and may contain O or N hetero atoms. Representative poly oxyalkylene polymer derivatives can include poly oxyalkylene polyol derivatives wherein the terminal hydroxy groups have been partly or fully converted to ether derivatives, e.
Other useful poly oxyalkylene derivatives are polyesters, e. Preferably, the major proportion of the poly oxyalkylene polymer derivative by weight will be the repeating oxyalkylene groups, OR 1. Said poly oxyalkylene polyols and their derivatives can be those which are solid at room temperature and have a molecular weight of at least about and preferably a molecular weight of about to 20, or higher, e. The lower limit of amount of the hydrocarbon polymer component c to be blended with the fluoropolymer and conductive components will generally be an amount at which an increase in extrusion rate of the blend occurs before surface or interior defects are observed in extrudates of the blend, as compared to a blend of the same fluoropolymer and conductive components that is not blended with the hydrocarbon polymer component.
Generally, the amount of the hydrocarbon polymer component will be about 0. The particular blend components chosen will have a bearing on the particular amount of hydrocarbon polymer component to be used, and simple sample extrusions can be run to determine that particular amount. The conductive carbon black paniculate used as a blend component in preparing the conductive fluoroplastic compositions of this invention can be any of those known materials added to resins to produce a desirably less-resistive system or render the resin system conductive.
Generally, the conductive carbon black particles to be used will have high surface area, e. Carbon blacks such as these are further described, for example, by Probst in "Carbon Black Sci. The blends of fluoropolymer, conductive particulate, and hydrocarbon polymer components a , b , and c can be prepared by blending means usually used in the plastics industry, such as compounding mill, a Banbury mixer, or a mixing extruder in which the hydrocarbon polymer and conductive particulate components are uniformly distributed throughout the fluoropolymer component.
The mixing operation is conveniently carried out at a temperature above the melting point of the polymers. It is also feasible to blend the polymers and conductive particulate components in the solid state and then cause uniform distribution of the hydrocarbon polymer and conductive particulate components in the fluoropolymer matrix by passing the blend through a melt extruder, such as employed in fabrication of extruded articles.
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The fluoropolymer and the hydrocarbon polymers may be used in the form, for example, of powders, pellets, or granules. In preparing shaped articles, such as film or tubing, of the conductive fluoroplastic blend compositions of this invention, various extruders or other melt shaping equipment known in the art of polymer melt-processing can be used. Preferably the blend components can be melt blended in a mixing extruder and the extruded mixture chopped or cut into pellets or cubes which are then fed to a single screw extruder and melt-processed therein to produce extrudates or shaped articles of desired form.
Different types of extruders which can be used to extrude the fluoroplastic compositions of this invention are described, for example, by Rauwendaal, C, "Polymer Extrusion," Hansen Publishers, p.
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The die design of the extruder can vary, depending on the desired extrudate to be fabricated. For example, an annular die can be used to extrude tubing, useful in making fuel line hose, such as that described in U. Objects and advantages are illustrated in the following examples, but these examples should not be construed to unduly limit this invention. EXAMPLES A plurality of conductive fluoroplastic compositions of this invention were prepared by mixing the components and melt-processing the mixtures and forming strands thereof with a twin-screw extruder, chopping the strands, and feeding the chopped or particulate material to a single-screw extruder and forming extrudates in the form of conductive fluoroplastic film.
The compositions are set forth in Table 1. For comparison, a number of control compositions designated C-l, C-2, etc. Observations were made of the appearance and properties of the strands, the melt processing of the blends and the electrical resistivity of the extruded films.
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These data are summarized in Table 2. In preparing the blends, the blend components, all in powdered form, were pre-weighed in a gallon plastic jar and mixed on a roller mill mixer. The screw speed varied from to rpm.
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The molten strands were water- quenched and chopped into pellets by a Killion pelletizer. The pH measurements were made by applying pH paper, wetted with distilled water, to a mass of pellets stored in a closed plastic jar, and the odor of the stored mass was noted upon opening of the storage jar. The pellets were dried of moisture in a forced air oven prior to being extruded into film, the weight of the pellets before and after drying was used to determine the amount of water on the pelleted compositions. The weight percentage of water removed was indicative of the surface roughness and porosity of the pellets.
The screw of the extruder was run at 50 rpm. The extruded film was quenched on a water-chilled casting roll and collected. Feed pH Odor 11 Amt. Lower values indicate a smoother, less porous strand. The data of Table 2 show marked decrease in resistivity i. The evaluation of these other compositions of the invention showed them to have desirable properties similar to those of the foregoing examples. Various modifications and alterations of this invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of this invention.
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This invention provides a melt-processable conductive fluoroplastic composition comprising a melt-processable, thermoplastic fluoropolymer component of interpolymerized units comprising those derived from vinylidene fluoride, a conductive particulate component comprising conductive carbon black particles, and a hydrocarbon polymer component.
The composition is useful for making, for example by melt-processing, conductive shaped articles including tubing. TABLE 1. A melt-processable conductive fluoroplastic composition comprising a blend of a a major amount of a melt-processable, thermoplastic fluoropolymer component of interpolymerized units comprising those derived from vinylidene fluoride,. A fluoroplastic composition according to claim 1 wherein said fluoropolymer component also contains interpolymerized units derived from at least one ethylenically-unsaturated, copolymerizable, fluorinated comonomer.